Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

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The Bulletin Clock is a symbol of the threat of doomsday hovering over humanity and stands at three minutes to midnight.


Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists was founded in December 1945 by Hyman Goldsmith and Eugene Rabinowitch. It was originally known as the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists of Chicago, however in March 1946, the words "of Chicago" were dropped.[1] It is published by the Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science.[2]

About

The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists aims to inform the public about nuclear weapon dangers, about climate change, and about emerging technologies in the life sciences. The Bulletin produces the magazine, the online content, and the "Doomsday Clock." It also hosts student fellowships and awards young journalists.[3]

History

Bulletin doomsday clock.png

In 1945, a group of scientists, engineers, and other experts who had created the atomic bomb, as part of the Manhattan Project, established the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.

In 1947, the Bulletin revealed the Doomsday Clock on its cover. The Clock is meant to convey the perils posed by nuclear weapons using symbols of apocalypse (midnight) and the contemporary idiom of nuclear explosion (countdown to zero). The Bulletin has been measuring Doomsday by this symbolic clock ever since, having first changed its position in 1949 according to the Bulletin's assessment of world events and trends. The Bulletin's Board of Directors, in consultation with its Board of Sponsors, decides when to move the hands.[3]

The clock hands have moved 19 times since the clock's first appearance. Shortly before midnight January 2010, the hands edged to six minutes before midnight from five minutes before midnight.[4]

Personnel

Staff

The following were staff-members of the Bulletin as at April, 1984:[2]

The following were staff-members of the Bulletin as at October, 1986:[5]

The following were staff-members of the Bulletin as at March 4, 2010:[5]

Governing Board

The following were on the Governing Board for the Bulletin as at Thursday, March 4, 2010[6]

Science and Security Board

The following were on the Science and Security Board for the Bulletin as at Thursday, March 4, 2010[7]

Board of Editors

The following were on the Board of Editors for the Bulletin as at April, 1984:[2]

Board of Directors

The following were on the Board of Directors for the Bulletin as at December 17, 1970:[8]

The following were on the Board of Directors for the Bulletin as at April, 1984:[2]

Sponsors

In 1949, the following were listed as founding sponsors of the Bulletin:[9]

As at May 4, 1971, the following were on the Board of Sponsors of the Bulletin:[10]

The following were sponsors of the Bulletin as at April, 1984:[2]

The following have been sponsors of the Bulletin at unspecified times:[11]

Other

Contributors

The following have contributed to The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists with articles or other contributions to the journal:

  • Anne Ehrlich's article, "Nuclear Winter: A forecast of the climatic and biological effects of nuclear war" appeared in the April 1984 editino of the journal.[12]

External Links

References