Bob Filner

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Robert (Bob) Filner


Bob Filner is featured in a

Robert (Bob) Filner is a pro-Socialist Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives, representing the 51st district of California, which encompasses the San Diego area.

Born in Pittsburgh on September 4, 1942, and raised in New York City, Bob Filner moved to the San Diego area in 1970. He and his wife, Jane Merrill, have two adult children.[1]

Bob Filner is the son of Joseph Filner, formerly a senior official of the Pennsylvania Communist Party.

Filner was elected as mayor of San Diego in November 2012.[2]


Filner holds a science degree and one of only 18 members in the House holding a Ph.D.

He spent twenty years tenured as a Professor of History at San Diego State University,

Civil Rights activism


In 1961, Bob Filner spent several months in a Southern jail as a "Freedom Rider" in the Civil Rights movement.

Five "Freedom Riders" were arrested in Jackson. Four of the five were college students and one Elizabeth Hirschfield, was a laboratory technician at the Atomic energy commission, in Ithaca New York.

One of the four students Bob Filner was an 18 year old engineering student at Cornell, where he was the founder of the Cornell Liberal Union. Filner later taught at the Tuskegee Institute and participated in the 1965 Selma to Montgomery March.[3]

Father's legacy

After Bob Filner became involved in politics, one of the people who campaigned for him was Andrew Young, then mayor of Atlanta, Ga. Young had been mentored by Martin Luther King, and he remembered, King's financial backer Joseph Filner well. At one point, he told a campaign rally that he supported Bob Filner's candidacy not only because of their shared Democratic viewpoints, but also, quite simply, "because of his daddy."[4]

Political career

Bob Filner was the President of the San Diego Board of Education and served on the San Diego City Council for five years. In 1991, he served as Deputy Mayor for the City of San Diego. He was first elected to Congress in 1992, and has been re-elected by wide margins every two years.

In January 2007, Congressman Filner became Chairman of the House of Representatives Veterans’ Affairs Committee. He has achieved a national reputation for his work on behalf of our nation’s veterans, both current veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan and more elderly veterans from the Vietnam and Korean wars and World War II. He led the fight to restore honor and benefits to the Filipino Veterans and Merchant Mariners of World War II.

During his years in Congress, Congressman Filner has also served on the House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure. He has fought for federal funding for border infrastructure. He has been an advocate of improved U.S./Mexico relations, quality education, protection of the environment, and universal health care.[5]

H.R. 950, the Job Creation and Infrastructure Restoration Act of 1997 was introduced in the 105th Congress on March 5, 1997 by Congressman Matthew Martinez of California. It had 33 original co-sponsors, including Bob Filner. The primary purpose of this emergency federal jobs legislation was to provide much needed jobs at union wages to crisis ridden cities by putting the unemployed to work rebuilding our nation's infrastructure (schools, housing, hospitals, libraries, public transportation, highways, parks, environmental improvements, etc. $250 billion is authorized for emergency public works jobs over a five year period.

Congressman Martinez had previously introduced this bill in the last Congress (as HR 1591) at the the request of over 50 prominent Labor leaders who formed the Los Angeles Labor Coalition for Public Works Jobs, which is why it is often referred to as the "Martinez Public Works Jobs Bill."[6]

This is the most significant jobs legislation introduced in Congress since Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal established the Works Progress Administration (WPA). This bill is the WPA-type program for today. It has strong provisions which will put hundreds of thousands of unemployed building trades workers to work as well as provide jobs for victims of plant closures, welfare recipients who are parents, youth, and the long term unemployed. The public works projects which will be established under this bill will be built in communities with the highest levels of unemployment and with the greatest needs.
The goal of the New York Coalition for Public Works Jobs is to build the movement to pass the Martinez Jobs bill as part of the National Labor Coalition for Public Works Jobs. You can help by asking your union, community organization, or local government body to to join those who have already passed resolutions to endorse the bill. Such a resolution has been introduced in the New York City Council. Calling on additional Congressional Representatives to co-sponsor the bill is very important. We will be organizing petition campaigns, visits to elected officials, and demonstrations and other actions for a public works jobs program.

The leaders of the Los Angeles Labor Coalition for Public Works Jobs and its only affiliate New York Coalition for Public Works Jobs, were all known supporters or members of the Communist Party USA.

Los Angeles , National Labor Coalition For Public Works Jobs

A New York affiliate, New York Coalition for Public Works Jobs, c/o Utility Workers Union of America Local 1-2.

Martinez Jobs Bill support rally

On October 18 1997, Bob Filner addressed a San Diego "show us the living wage jobs" rally, as part of a national day of action, calling on Congress to pass the Martinez Jobs Bill. There were concurrent rallies in nearly 20 cities, organized by the Communist Party USA dominated National Labor-Community Coalition For Public Works Jobs.[7]

Congressional Progressive Caucus

In 1998 Bob Filner Democrat was listed as a member of the Congressional Progressive Caucus.[8]

As of February 20 2009 Bob Filner was listed as a member of the Congressional Progressive Caucus.[9]

Dining with Fidel Castro

In February 2002 a delegation[10]of California Democratic Party Congressmen and women including Sam Farr, Diane Watson, Bob Filner and Mike Thompson, together with singer Carole King and representatives of California's rice and wine industries visited Havana as part of the latest effort to change U.S. policy toward Cuba.

Carole King serenaded Fidel Castro with "You've Got a Friend" at a weekend dinner, and U.S. representatives from California shared wines from Napa and Sonoma --

They said their dinner with Castro at the Palace of the Revolution stretched from 9 p.m. Sunday until about 4:30 a.m. Monday. During the meal, King also performed a new song, "Love Makes the World."

Supported by Council for a Livable World

The Council for a Livable World, founded in 1962 by long-time socialist activist and alleged Soviet agent, Leo Szilard, is a non-profit advocacy organization that seeks to "reduce the danger of nuclear weapons and increase national security", primarily through supporting progressive, congressional candidates who support their policies. The Council supported Bob Filner in his successful House of Representatives run as candidate for California.[11]

Links to Democratic Socialists of America

Like many Congressional Progressive Caucus members, Bob Filner has ties to Democratic Socialists of America.

DSA "Single Payer" pressure

In 1993 San Diego Democratic Socialists of America members were active in waging a campaign to convince the area Congresspeople, Lynn Schenk and Bob Filner, to co-sponsor the McDermott-Conyers bill for a single-payer health care system.[12]

"Living Wage, Jobs for all Act"


In 1995, Nancy Pelosi, Bernie Sanders, David Bonior, Eleanor Holmes Norton, Cynthia McKinney, Maurice Hinchey, Major Owens, Nydia Velasquez, John Conyers, Bob Filner, Alcee Hastings, Lane Evans, Edolphus Towns, Jim McDermott, supported Democratic Socialists of America member rep. Ron Dellums' "Living Wage, Jobs for all Act"

DSA endorsement

In July 1996, the Democratic Socialists of America Political Action Committee endorsed Bob Filner, California 50, in that year's Congressional elections.[13]

2000 DSA convention

From a Spring 2000 Democratic Left editorial;[14]

DSA honored independent socialist Congressperson Bernie Sanders of Vermont at our last convention banquet, and we have always raised significant funds nationally for his electoral campaigns. At the same time, we were pleased to have Democratic Congressperson and Progressive Caucus member Bob Filner of San Diego introduce Sanders at the convention...

2004 DSA support

In 2004 San Diego Democratic Socialists of America supported Filner's successful Congressional race.[15]

Meanwhile, San Diego DSAers are involved in progressive Democrat Bob Filner’s 51st CD reelection race.

In Democratic Socialists of America's Democratic Left Winter 2004/2005, Theresa Alt wrote;[16]

We reported on the candidates that DSAers were supporting in the last issue of Democratic Left. How did they do?
In San Diego, longtime progressive Congressman Bob Filner won handily. Third-party candidate Lawrence Rockwood got 3.3% in his protest run against a centrist. And the San Diego mayoral race got really interesting...

2006 DSA support

DSA supported Filner again in 2006.[17]

San Diego DSA produced an email recommendation sheet for the membership covering all races and propositions on the November ballot, a popular tradition of the local that people ask for as elections approach. Activist members there went precinct walking for Representative Bob Filner. They also worked hard for statewide Proposition 1C, a large bond issue for affordable housing, which passed.

2008 DSA event

In 2008 Bob Filner attended a San Diego DSA function organized for City Council candidate Stephen Whitburn. [18]

SD-DSA held a forum with about 20 participants on “DSA, the Left, and the Presidential Election.” They organized a fundraising event in April for City Council candidate Stephen Whitburn, which was attended by Congressman Bob Filner and raised about $1000.[19]

Donated office to DSA phone bankers

Congressman Filner, signing DSA Pledge for Economic Justice

On Saturday, August 10 1996, over 300 people attended the San Diego Hearing on Economic Insecurity, "a forum intended to hammer home to a message to our elected officials that working America is hurting and to demand that government take corrective action."

For two hours, a panel that included Congressman Bob Filner (D), California Assemblywoman Denise Ducheny, and five candidates who may soon hold seats in Congress and the California Assembly listened while a steady stream of local people told their stories. Testimony came from workers, seniors, welfare mothers, men and women seeking work and students soon to join … "

The Hearing, involved groups such as the Gray Panthers, the ultra radical National Lawyers Guild, Welfare Warriors and labor unions, but was initiated as a project of San Diego Democratic Socialists of America.

However the main work in organizing and publicizing the hearing was carried out by DSA members...San Diego DSA realized that an effort of this magnitude needed a full time paid organizer. We were fortunate to be able to hire Stephanie Jennings, a veteran supporter and organizer of progressive action.... Stephanie kept in close touch with Boston DSA, with Alan Charney and Michele Rossi and DSA national office, with Chris Riddiough in our Washington DC office and with Tim Parks, Eric Vega and Duane Campbell in other California chapters.

Bob Filner even donated his campaign office to DSA phone bankers, soliciting support for the event;

Conressman Bob Filner donated the use of his campaign office for a week of nightly phone banking by DSA volunteers...[20]

Congressman Filner signed the Pledge for Economic Justice.[21]

Remembering Clinton Jencks

A memorial tribute in San Diego Jan. 8, 2006, celebrated the life of legendary labor organizer Clinton Jencks, who died in San Diego Dec. 15, 2005, at the age of 87.

Jencks, an international representative of the Amalgamated Bayard District Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers in New Mexico, helped lead the largely Latino union in a 15-month strike against Empire Zinc Co. that began in 1950. The strike became the subject of the classic film, “Salt of the Earth.”

During the McCarthy era Jencks was convicted of falsely swearing a non-Communist affidavit required of union officials at the time under the Taft-Hartley Act. Later Jencks joined Democratic Socialists of America.

Among speakers at the memorial tribute was San Diego Congressman Bob Filner, who said Jencks was a colleague and friend, and a steadfast defender of workers’ rights when they were both San Diego State University professors. [22]

Supporting DSA friend's Bill

According to Chicago Democratic Socialists of America's New Ground No. 135, March/April 2011;[23]

The need for Federal action should be obvious. To that end, DSA supports H.R. 870, The Humphrey-Hawkins 21st Century Full Employment and Training Act, introduced into the House of Representatives by John Conyers, U.S. Representative from Detroit, and friend of DSA. This bill introduces several strategies to generate jobs, including the establishment of a National Full Employment Trust Fund to create employment opportunities for the unemployed, financed (budget-neutral) by a tax on securities transactions. Introduced by Representative John Conyers, Jr. (MI-14) on March 2nd, the bill recently gained its 6th cosponsor, Bob Filner (CA-51). In Illinois, Jesse Jackson, Jr. (IL-2) is a co-sponsor.

21st Century Democrats support

21st Century Democrats is a Political Action Committee that has stood for Progressive causes for over 20 years. Founded in 1986 by Institute for Policy Studies affiliate, Iowa Senator Tom Harkin, Democratic Socialists of America affiliates, former Texas Agriculture Secretary Jim Hightower, and former Illinois Congressman Lane Evans. Its three main goals are to help elect progressive candidates, train young people about grassroots organizing, and lastly, to continue to support our elected officials after Election Day "through our comprehensive progressive network".

Carol Moseley Braun, a former US Senator from Illinois, and long time Communist Party USA affiliate, serves on the organization's Advisory Board. Long time Board chair was Democratic Socialists of America member Jim Scheibel, a former Mayor of Saint Paul, Minnesota.

The mission of 21st Century Democrats is to build a "farm team" of progressive populists who will be the future leaders of the Democratic Party.

In each election cycle, we endorse a diverse array of candidates who exemplify our values and show unusual promise to advance our progressive goals. We invest in some of the most competitive races as well as in some of the most challenging – those in which the candidates are outstanding but the traditional Democratic supporters are most reticent. We back candidates in primaries as well as general election races, and we focus the bulk of our resources on electing challengers and protecting vulnerable incumbents.[24]

Filner was one of 12 key progressives endorsed by 21st Century Democrats in the 2012 election cycle, during his successful run at the San Diego mayoralty.[25]

The Institute for Food and Development Policy/Food First

Bob Filner is on the list of Congressional Representatives who have participated in hearings/briefings since 1998, with the very radical Institute for Food and Development Policy/Food First, founded by Frances Moore Lappe (Democratic Socialists of America, Institute for Policy Studies) and Joseph Collins (Institute for Policy Studies), authors of the book "Food First".[26]

Populist Caucus

The Populist Caucus was founded on February 11, 2009 in the United States House of Representatives by Democrat Bruce Braley of Iowa. The caucus originally included 26 other Democrats in the House, including Bob Filner.

JStreet Conference

Bob Filner and Jared Polis at JStreet Conference, Oct. 26, 2009

On Oct. 26, 2009, Bob Filner spoke alongside fellow congressmen, Jared Polis and Jan Schakowsky at the JStreet 2009 Conference.[27] JStreet is a leftist Jewish organization that, according to its website, "was founded to change the dynamics of American politics and policy on Israel and the Middle East".[28]

JStreet has several Democratic Socialists of America members within its leadership.

J Sreet endorsement

In 2008 Filner was endorsed by JStreet PAC.[29]

Mideast Congressional Mission

In February 2010, the first JStreet-sponsored congressional mission toured Israel, Jordan and Palestinian-controlled areas. Five members of Congress participated in the tour; Lois Capps, Bill Delahunt, Bob Filner, Mary Jo Kilroy, and Donald Payne.

It was stated that the mission "will meet with Israeli government and opposition leaders as well as key regional leaders, including Jordanian King Abdullah II and Palestinian National Authority Prime Minister Salam Fayyad. The delegation will travel widely in Israel, the Palestinian Territories, and Jordan taking a close look at the situation on the ground through the eyes of policy makers and civil society leaders."[30]

JStreet is a Jewish organization that, according to its website, "was founded to change the dynamics of American politics and policy on Israel and the Middle East".[31]

Veterans for Peace

VFP 1985-2010: 25 Years of Working for Peace, August 25-29, 2010

At the By the Bay Holiday Inn, Portland, ME.[32]

Convention Highlights

  • Poetry event recognizing the editors and contributors to Winning Hearts and Minds, and Demilitarized Zones, collections of poems by Vietnam veterans, followed by open mike.
  • Opening reflections by Jerry Genesio, a principal founder of VFP.
  • Opening keynote by Chris Hedges, prolific and provocative progressive writer.
  • A Public Meeting in Portland featuring Rep. Bob Filner and Terry Tempest Williams along with the NAACP, Native American and labor organizations, and representatives of Portland's immigrant and marriage equality communities. Entertainment by Inanna, a dynamic women's drumming ensemble.
  • Friday evening lobster bake on nearby Peak's Island.
  • Breakout sessions to bring the concerns and ideas of the membership to the organization's leaders and to set policy goals for 2010-2011.
  • Banquet featuring Chris Hedges and Ann Wright, along with Noel Paul Stookey, of the revered group Peter, Paul and Mary
  • March and rally around the city of Portland ending at Post Office Park

"Agent Orange" campaign connection

November 6, 2007, Filner's Capitol Hill office. Second from left Susan Schall, Dr. Nguyen Thi Ngoc Phuong, Bob Filner, Merle Ratner

From November 1-14, 2007, Dr. Nguyen Thi Ngoc Phuong a leading clinician / researcher on the effects of Agent Orange on women and children in Vietnam from Tu Du Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, visited Washington DC on an Vietnam Agent Orange Public Health Tour

Dr. Phuong, Vice President of the Vietnam Association for Victims of Agent Orange toured Washington DC where a policy of the American Public Health Association on Agent Orange (Vietnamese version) was passed on November 6 2007. Dr Phuong was accompaigned by Merle Ratner of the Committees of Correspondence for Democracy and Socialism and Susan Schnall (both leaders of the Committees of Correspondence dominated Vietnam Agent Orange Relief & Responsibility Campaign.

The delegation met several members of Congress including John Conyers, Bob Filner and Sheila Jackson-Lee.[33]

Dr. Phuong has held many senior positions in Vietnam's communist government including;[34]

Congressional "Agent Orange" support

Members of the US congress and the US Department of State showed their support for Vietnamese "victims of Agent Orange/Dioxin" during a visit to the US by a delegation from the Vietnam Association of Victims of Agent Orange/Dioxin.

The visit was made from November 22 to December 4 2010 at the invitation of the US’s Veterans for Peace organization and the Vietnam Agent Orange Relief & Responsibility Campaign also based in the US.

The Vietnamese delegation met with the leaderships of the VFP and VAORRC to discuss assistance for AO victims and future cooperation, "especially when commemorating the 50th anniversary of the start of the dioxin war against Vietnam on August 10, 1961".

They also met with congressman John Conyers, Chairman of the Committee on the Judiciary under the US House of Representatives, congressman Eni Faleomavaega, Chairman of the Subcommittee on Asia, the Pacific and the Global Environment under the Committee on Foreign Affairs at the US House of Representatives, and US Representative Bob Filner.

These US congressmen expressed their support for Vietnamese victims of Agent Orange and welcomed VAVA’s efforts to assist the victims. They stated that the US administration must attach more importance to settling the aftermaths of dioxin in Vietnam.

Mr Faleomavaega said that he regretted not having done enough for the victims in Vietnam and called on both the US and Vietnamese government to take responsibility and address the problem.

During the delegation’s meeting with representatives from the US Department of State, the US side confirmed that the US Department of State gives a high priority to solving the dioxin issue in Vietnam.[35]

During the meetings, the Congressmen showed their support for Vietnamese AO victims, praising the VAVA for its effective activities to help the victims.

They also affirmed that the US administration must treasure the addressing of the consequences of AO in the relation between the two countries.

During the meeting with the US Department of State, the Department of State affirmed that the addressing of AO issue in Vietnam was a care and priority, according to delegation leader Lieutenant-general Nguyen Van Rinh.

He also said that the VAVA and the VAORRC would actively work with the US Congress and Government to have greater help for Vietnamese and American AO victims as well as for purifying toxic chemicals in hot areas in Vietnam.

The two organizations came to a joint declaration on increasing cooperation for justice for Vietnamese AO victims.[36]

Vietnam trip

Filner meets with VAVA
Filner meets with Vietnamese Premier Nguyen Tan Dung

Congressman Filner, the sponsor of H.R. 2634, the "Victims of Agent Orange Relief Act of 2011," visited Vietnam from January 5-11, 2012 to study the impact of Agent Orange on the Vietnamese people.

The bill would increase medical funding for Vietnam veterans who were exposed to the chemical and their descendants, along with providing money for health services and cleanup in areas of Vietnam still affected by Agent Orange, some 19,000,000 gallons of which was dropped on the country from 1961-1971. The bill is currently awaiting debate in a House Foreign Affairs subcommittee.

Congressman Filner was hosted by the Vietnam Association for Victims of Agent Orange/dioxin (VAVA) and coordinated by the Vietnam Agent Orange Relief & Responsibility Campaign. The International Association of Democratic Lawyers provided funding assistance.[37]

He was met at Tan Son Nhat airport by Senior Lieutenant General Nguyen Van Rinh, Chairman of the Vietnam Association for Victims of Agent Orange and Major General Tran Ngoc Tho, Chairman of the HCMC Association for Victims of Agent Orange.

On January 4, the first day of his trip, Saigon Giai Phong, a news service billed in English as “The Organ of the Party Committee, the Communist Party of Viet Nam,” reports that Filner visited a temple honoring Ho Chi Minh, where he “burned incense to the country’s dear leader.”[38]

Congressman Filner visited Agent Orange victims in Ho Chi Minh City, Vung Tau, Cu Chi, Danang, Quang Ngai, Quang Ninh and Hanoi. He saw daycare, homecare and rehabilitation projects run by the representative of Vietnam’s victims, the Vietnam Association for Victims of Agent Orange/dioxin. In Vung Tau, Congressman Filner visited a VAVA project which cares for former ARVN (U.S. allied) soldiers and their families effected by Agent Orange.

Congressman Filner met with Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung and Mrs. Nguyen Thi Kim Ngan, Vice President of the National Assembly as well as with medical and scientific experts on Agent Orange. He also visited a pagoda and spoke with Buddhist monks.[39]

Calling on Israeli Govt. to lift Gaza Travel Ban

On Dec. 22, 2009, thirty-three U.S. Representatives wrote to Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, calling on her to request that the Israeli Government end the ban on student travel from Gaza to the West Bank. Bob Filner was one of the signatories of the letter.[40] The entire letter together with a complete list of signatories can be read by clicking here.

Supported Lifting the Gaza Blockade

On Jan. 27, 2010, U.S. Representatives Keith Ellison and Jim McDermott led 52 other members of Congress in signing a letter addressed to President Barack Obama, calling for him to use diplomatic pressure to resolve the blockade affecting Gaza. Bob Filner was one of the signatories of the letter. [41] The entire letter together with a complete list of signatories can be read by clicking here.


The following are past and present staff:[42]

External links


  2. Voice of San Diego "Filner Will Temporarily Leave 51st District Vacancy," November 19, 2012
  3. Freedom riders: 1961 and the struggle for racial justice By Raymond Arsenault, page 327
  5. Official congrssional bio, accessed July 28, 2011
  6. [1] The Job Creation and Infrastructure Restoration Act of 1997 (H.R. 950)From the New York State Communist Party 16 March 1997, email list, accessed June 14, 2010
  7. PWW, October 11, 1997, page 6
  8. DSA website: Members of the Progressive Caucus (archived on the Web Archive website)
  9. Congressional Progressive Caucus website: Caucus Member List
  11. CLW website: Meet Our Candidates
  12. Dem.Left, May/June 1993, page 11.
  13. Democratic Left, July/August 1996, page 21
  16. Dem. Left,Winter 2004/2005
  20. Democratic Left September 1, 1996, Charging the Elephant: San Diego DSA Kicks Off Convention Week with a Call to Action, Sandra Brow, Herb Shore
  21. Democratic Left, September/October 1996, page 22]
  22. Peoples World, Memorial honors labor organizer, professor Clinton Jencks, January 27 2006
  23. [, New Ground No. 135, March/April 2011
  24. 21st Century Democrats website, About us]
  25. 21st Century Democrats 2012 bio
  26. [, Food First staff page]
  27. Rep. Schakowsky at JStreet Conference
  28. KeyWiki: JStreet
  29. J Street 2008 Annual Report
  30. JTA website: J Street sends first Mideast congressional mission, Feb. 15, 2010
  31. KeyWiki: JStreet
  32. Portland, ME: Veterans for Peace 25th Anniversary Convention, Peoples World, August 25, 2010
  33. November 1-14, 2007 Vietnam Agent Orange. Public Health Tour Featuring: Dr. Nguyen Thi Ngoc Phuong, Vietnam Agent Orange Relief & Responsibility Campaign website, accessed December 12, 2010
  34. November 1-14, 2007 Vietnam Agent Orange. Public Health Tour Featuring: Dr. Nguyen Thi Ngoc Phuong, Vietnam Agent Orange Relief & Responsibility Campaign website, accessed December 12, 2010
  35. US congressmen support Vietnam’s Agent Orange victims, Voice of Vietnam News 12/06/2010
  36. Vietnamese AO victims receive great support in the US,
  37. Vietnam Agent Orange Relief & Responsibility Campaign website, Congressman Bob Filner visits Vietnam for Study Tour on Agent Orange, January 5-11, 2012
  38. Vietnam Agent Orange Relief & Responsibility Campaign website, Congressman Bob Filner visits Vietnam for Study Tour on Agent Orange, January 5-11, 2012
  39. Vietnam Agent Orange Relief & Responsibility Campaign website, Congressman Bob Filner visits Vietnam for Study Tour on Agent Orange, January 5-11, 2012
  40. John Dingell's House website: Letter to Hillary Clinton, Dec. 22, 2009
  41. The Minnesota Independent: Ellison, McCollum and Oberstar urge Obama to lift Gaza blockade, Jan. 26, 2010 (accessed on March 14, 2011)
  42. [2]